The Nervous System
References for Ginkgo Biloba: Lesson on The Nervous System

1. Itil T, Martorano D. (New York University Medical Center) Natural substances in psychiatry (Ginkgo biloba in dementia). Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31(1):147-58. (US)

2. Z'Brun A. Ginkgo -- myth and reality. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1995; 84(1):1-6. (Switzerland)

3. Oyama Y, Fuchs PA, Katayama N, Noda K. Myricetin and quercetin, the flavonoid constituents of Ginkgo biloba extract, greatly reduce oxidative metabolism in both resting and Ca(2+)-loaded brain neurons. Brain Res 1994; 635(1-2):125-9. (Netherlands)

4. Stoll S, Scheuer K, Pohl O, Müller WE. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) independently improves changes in passive avoidance learning and brain membrane fluidity in the aging mouse. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996; 29(4):144-9. (Germany)

5. Tighilet B, Lacour M. Pharmacological activity of the Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on equilibrium function recovery in the unilateral vestibular neurectomized cat. J Vestib Res 1995; 5(3):187-200. (US, French author)

6. Smith PF, Maclennan K, Darlington CL. The neuroprotective properties of the Ginkgo biloba leaf: a review of the possible relationship to platelet-activating factor (PAF). J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 50(3):131-9. (Ireland)

7. Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, Wierich W, HÍorr R. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996; 29(2):47-56. (Germany)

8. Haase J, Halama P, HÍorr R. Effectiveness of brief infusions with Ginkgo biloba Special Extract EGb 761 in dementia of the vascular and Alzheimer type. Z Gerontol Geriatr 1996; 29(4):302-9. (Germany)

9. Allain H, Raoul P, Lieury A, LeCoz F, Gandon JM, d'Arbigny P. Effect of two doses of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coding test in elderly subjects. Clin Ther 1993; 15(3):549-58. (US, French author)

10. Hopfenmüller W. Evidence for a therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba special extract. Meta-analysis of 11 clinical studies in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency in old age. Arzneimittelforschung 1994; 44(9): 1005-13. (Germany)

11. Drabaek H, Petersen JR, WÍinberg N, Hansen KF, Mehlsen J. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients with intermittent claudication. Ugeskr Laeger 1996; 158(27)3928-31. (Denmark)

12. White HL, Scates PW, Cooper BR. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase. Life Sci 1996; 58(16)1315-21. (England)

13. Stücker O, Pons C, Duverger JP, Drieu K. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on arteriolar spasm in a rat cremaster muscle preparation. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 1996; 16(2):98-104. (Switzerland)

14. Welt K, Fitzl G, Schaffranietz L. Myocardium-protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in old rats against acute isobaric hypoxia. An electron microscopic morphometric study. II. Protection of microvascular endothelium. Exp Toxicol Pathol 1996; 48(1):81-6. (Germany)

15. Fitzl G, Welt K, Schaffranietz L. Myocardium-protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in old rats against acute isobaric hypoxia. An electron microscopic morphometric study. I. Protection of cardiomyocytes. Exp Toxicol Pathol (1996) 48(1):33-9. (Germany)

16. Chen K, Zhou WQ, Gao P, Clinical study on the effect of shuxuening tablet in treatment of coronary heart disease. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1996; 16(1):24-6. (China)

17. Kobayashi N, Suzuki R, Koide C, Suzuki T, Matsuda H, Kubo M. Effect of leaves of Ginkgo biloba on hair regrowth in C3H strain mice. Yakugaku Zasshi 1993; 113(10):718-24. (Japan)

18. Blume J, Kieser M, Hölscher U. Placebo-controlled double-blind study of the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in trained patients with intermittent claudication. Vasa 1996; 25(3):265-74. (Switzerland)

19. Paick JS, Lee JH. An experimental study of the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the human and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. J Urol 1996; 156(5): 1876-80. (US, Authors: Department of Urology, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Korea.)

20. Droy-Lefaix MT, Cluzel J, Menerath JM, Bonhomme B, Doly M. Antioxidant effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the retina. Int J Tissue React 1995; 17(3):93-100. (Switzerland)

21. Pritz-Hohmeier S, Chao TI, Krenzlin J, Reichenbach A. Effect of in vivo application of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (Rökan) on the susceptibility of mammalian retinal cells to proteolytic enzymes. Ophthalmic Res 1994; 26(2):80-6. (Switzerland)

22. Duverger D, DeFeudis FV, Drieu K. Effects of repeated treatments with an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on cerebral glucose utilization in the rat: an autoradiographic study. Gen Pharmacol 1995; 26(6):1375-83. (England)

23. Didier A, Droy-Lefaix MT, Aurousseau C, Cazals Y. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on cochlear vasculature in the guinea pig: morphometric measurements and laser Doppler flowmetry. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1996; 253(1-2):25-30. (Germany)

24. Hoffmann F, Beck C, Schutz A, Offermann P. Ginkgo extract EGb 761 (tenobin)/HAES versus naftidrofuryl (Dusodril)/HAES. A randomized study of therapy of sudden deafness. Laryngorhinootologie 1994; 73(3):149-52. (Germany)

25. Tamborini A, Taurelle R. Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1993 88(7-9):447-57. (France)

26. Li W, Dai QT, Liu ZE, Ho Tsa Chih. Preliminary study on early fibrosis of chronic hepatitis B treated with Ginkgo biloba Composita. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh 1995; 15(10):593-5. (China)

Products Containing Ginkgo:
Ginkgo Extract Time-Released
Ginkgo/Gotu Kola Concentrate
Ginkgo/Hawthorn Combination